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Video referee

The KNVB strongly believes in the future potential of the video assistant referee. Video assistance can help the on-field referee make decisions by reviewing footage from multiple cameras fitted in the stadium.

The KNVB’s Arbitrage 2.0 pilot project examines implementation issues relating to video assistance to match officials.

Behind the scenes: First live test of video assistants.

A video assistant referee advises the on-field referee in ‘game-changing’ decisions: penalty decisions, possible red card incidents or goals preceded by a foul or off-side. The video referee gives advice, the on-field referee remains in charge and has the final say.

The KNVB is investigating whether and to what extent video assistance can have added value to the current refereeing system.


FIFA gave the go-ahead for video assistance experiments in March 2016. The first test with a live connection took place during a friendly between Italy and Spain on 1 September, with on-field referee Björn Kuipers supported by video assistant referee Danny Makkelie. FIFA opted for a Dutch team to conduct this first live test as the KNVB is the international leader in the field of video assistance.

The first live test in the Netherlands was held during the Ajax Amsterdam v Willem II Tilburg KNVB Cup match on Wednesday 21 September, when Pol van Boekel received assistance from video referee Danny Makkelie.

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